Translator: Rhonda JacobsReviewer: Leonardo Silva This is me ten years ago. I weighed 40 pounds more than today, and like many beings, I wanted to lose weight. Like countless people, I wanted to knowwhat is the best diet for humen. Many of us actually have an opinionabout this issue. Some is confident that a low fat, plant-based diet is the best. Others, that a low-carb diet, rich in proteinand swine solid, is the best. Others have opinionson how much carbohydrate we should snack, or how much salt, cholesterol, saturated solid, eggs or dairy makes we should have in our diet.But the issue of what the best diet is, is a scientific one, so there should be no roomfor minds or ideas. If Diet A is really better than Diet B, then a study that comparesthe two on enough parties should show that definitively. No minds , no minds, just hard data, right? What is also clear is thatif the best diet does exist, then we haven’t yet find it because the incidenceof diet-related disease has increased dramaticallyin the past several decades. Now, you might think it’s becausepeople don’t listen to what we tell them. But in fact, that’s not true, beings actually generallydo follow dietary guidelines. But according tothe Center for Disease Control, if you live in the United Nation, there’s over a 70 percentage chancethat you’re either overweight, diabetic or have non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease.And there’s overwhelming evidencethat food and life-style are major drivers of these conditions. So why is it that after so much research, we still don’t have an answerto the seemingly simple question of what is the best diet for humen? What I’d like to propose to you todayis that the reason we don’t have an answer is because we’ve beenasking the wrong question. And it’s the wrong questionbecause it assumes that the best diet dependsonly on the nutrient and not on the person eating it. But what if differences in our genetics, lifestyle, our bowel bacteria movement us to respond differently to food? What if these differences explain whysome nutritions work for some people but not for others? What if our nutrition needs to bepersonally adapted to our unique make-up? This is exactly the questionwe set out to ask in our own research, which I did with my colleague Eran Elinav and various graduate studentsfrom the Weizmann Institute of Science.To take a scientific approach, we firstly examined for a metricof healthy nutrition that we should study. Most studies examine weight lossor risk of myocardial infarction after some diet. But the problem is that these are affectedby many factors unrelated to diet, they take many weeks to change, and in the end, you geta single measure of success. And if it didn’t work, well thenit’s very hard to understand why. And so instead, we probed for a metric that would still be relevantfor weight management and diet-related disease, but one that we could also easilyand accurately evaluate across many beings. And this led us to focuson blood glucose levels, and more accurately, changesin blood glucose levels levels after a banquet. We announce this a “meal glucose response.” Why is it important? Well, because highglucose status after a banquet promote both emptines and weight advantage. After we gobble, our body accepts the carbohydratesin the food into simple sugars and exhausts them into the bloodstream. From there, with the help of insulin, cells throughout our bodyremove the glucose from the blood so that they can use itas a source of energy.But insulin also signals our bodyto proselytize excess sugar into fat and storage it, and that’s a primary wayby which we gain weight. In addition, fast flowof glucose into the blood often motives our bodyto freeing too much insulin, which could lower our glucose levelsto below baseline, fixing us feel hungry and snack more. Meal glucose responsesare also very relevant for our state because they’ve been shownto be determining factor for obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseaseand other metabolic agitations. A recent study that followed2, 000 parties for over 30 times found that higher mealglucose positions after dinners prophesy overall higher fatality. Ultimately, and not least important, with recent technological advances, we can now follow a person’sglucose elevations continuously for an entire week. And since the average personeats around 50 banquets a few weeks, it allows us to measure glucose responsesto 50 dinners in time a single week.Meal glucose responses likewise provides us with a mode to immediately measurethe effect of every single meal, as opposed to common approachings that merely evaluatethe effect of an overall nutrition. Now, of course, there are many factorsbeyond glucose positions that are affecting a healthful diet. But this is a very important one, and solving itcan be a major step forward. Luckily for us, we managed to convince1, 000 healthy beings of this idea, and we connected themto one of the following options small glucose sensors and tracked their glucose levelscontinuously for an entire week.And during that week, participantslogged all that is they feed on a mobile app that we developed. And so that allowed usto measure glucose responses to 50 different dinners for each person and around 50,000 different mealsacross all 1,000 participates, representing our study the largest one that was ever doneon this problem until today. So what did we find? Well, when we lookedat medians, we examined trends. For example, morecarbohydrates in the meal generally increase the response. This is not so surprising. Another, perhaps more surprising, tend is that more fat in the mealgenerally declined the response. But – and this isthe key meet of our study – for every trend we knew, there were countless peoplewho were very different from it. Basically, when the same personate the same meal on different days, the response was very similar. But when different peopleate the same meal, the response was very different. For example, white breadinduced almost no effect on the blood sugar levels of some people, but in others, it persuasion massive spikes.And the same was truefor every single food we experimented, including rice, pizza, sushi and even chocolate. For every nutrient, there were some peoplewho had low-toned responses, others who had medium responses, and hitherto othersthat had very high responses. It wasn’t just about the menu, it was also about the person eating it. So while averagesand tendencies are informative, for any given individual, they may not mean much. Now, it wasn’t just abouthow good the body was at handling sugar, every person had different foodsthat spiked his grades. Some people even had opposite responses. For example, some peoplespiked for ice cream but not for rice. But then others spiked for riceand not for ice cream. In fact, more people spiked for ricethan for ice cream. Now, my spouse is a clinical dietician, so when I testified herthis data, she was outraged, because as a practitioner, she of courserelies on general dietary specifications, and so one of the first things that she tells her manynewly diagnosed pre-diabetics is to stop eating nutrients such as ice cream and instead eat morecomplex carbohydrates such as brown rice. So, as soon as she saw our data, she of course realizedthat for most of her cases not only does her dietary admonition not facilitate, but in fact, it pushes them fasterto develop the very same disease that her opinion was meant to prevent.So these results of ourson such a large data set persuaded us that responsesto food are personal, and that diets that maintainnormal blood glucose heights is required to be personallytailored to the individual. They also present, in our opinion, why the present nutritional paradigm that searches for that one best dietis inherently flawed. The best nutrition for humans is not exist. Our responses to food are personal, so our dietary advicemust also be personal. And personalized dietary advicewas our next challenge. To tackle it, we measuredmany parameters across participants that we reviewed may explainpeople’s variability in glucose have responded to banquets. And these included basic metricsand life factors like age, value, altitude and physical act, but too blood tests, medical backgroundand food frequency questionnaires, and likewise DNA sequencingof both the human genome and the gut bacteria compositionof each person.Now, of these, the nerve bacteria was perhaps the most novelcomponent that we examined. For hundred of years, we knowthat bacteria live within our organization. But simply with recent advancesin DNA sequencing could we begin to study them extensively. And when we did, we found that this vast collection of hundreds of different speciesthat we each legion, collectively period “our microbiome, ” has a major impacton our health and canker. And what does the microbiomeeven more exciting is that unlike our genetics, we can also change it even by simple necessitates, such as changing what we eat. Our bacteria help us digestsome of the menu that we gobble, and in turn, create moleculesthat are taken by our own cells and affect our physiology.For example, in our own investigate, we studied artificial sweeteners, which the vast majority of usconsume on a daily basis in various nutrition soda drinksand other produces. And we pointed out that consumptionof artificial sweeteners reforms the composition of the gut bacteriasuch that when transferred into mice causes the miceto develop symptoms of diabetes. And so this and several other studies guided us be wondered whether the microbiomewould also be important for explaining people’sglucose variability in response to dinners. And we are therefore made this microbiomeand other clinical data that we accumulated, and we exercised advancedmachine learning algorithms to automatically search for rules that predict personalizedglucose responses to meals.For example, one such ruler was possible that if you’re over 50, and you have a certain bacterial categories, then your responseto a banana will be high. The overall algorithmcombined tens of thousands of such rules that it automaticallydeduced from the data. This approach is actually same to how websites like Amazonmake book recommendations, except that we related itto how people respond to food. And we could show that this algorithmcould then take any person, even people who are not partof our original study, and prophesy the responseto arbitrary banquets with high accuracy. So as a final step, we askedwhether we can also use this algorithm to design personalized dietsthat normalize blood glucose levels.So we recruitedand profiled brand-new players, and we queried the algorithm to predicttwo foods for each person; in one diet, which we calledthe “bad diet, ” we asked the algorithm to predict foods for which that personwould have high responses. And in the other – “good diet” – we invited it to predict foods for whichthat person would have low responses. And every person then followedeach diet for 1 week. Now, by design, the dietshad to be identical in calories. In fact, all breakfasts, lunches and dinners had the same calories on different daytimes. And it’s also important to note that each person receiveda different personalized diet, and there were even some menus that were given to some peopleon their good diet but to others on their bad nutrition. Now, to show you that these foods are not the obvious onesyou might think of, here they are for one of our members. Now, take a moment and seeif you can guess for yourself which one the algorithmpredicted to be the good diet and which to be the bad dietfor this particular participant.And as you look at these, notice that each food contains nutrients that would not commonly appearin standard diets. And now for merriment, let’s play a speedy venture recreation, and you all have to participate. So, raise your hand if you thinkthe diet on the right is the good one. Okay. Now raise your hand if you thinkthe diet on the left is the good one. Okay, emphatically we seenearly a 50/50 split now, testifying you thatit’s definitely not negligible to guess. And I can tell youthat for this participant, the algorithm predictedthe nutrition on the right, the one with the ice cream, to be the good one. And so now the only question ishow good did these foods wield. And what I’ll demonstrate you next is in our view perhaps the most striking resultthat came out of our study. So here are the perpetual glucose levels of this participantwhen following the bad diet.And you can clearly see abnormally highglucose elevations after snacks indicating that this participanthas impaired glucose long-suffering and is likely pre-diabetic. But on the good diet, the one with the ice cream and the same amount of caloriesas the bad diet, this same pre-diabetic participantachieved amply regular blood glucose levels ranks without even a single spikeacross the entire week. Obviously, we were very happyto find out these results, and, in fact, we attained similar resultsfor most participants for which we designed personalized dietsusing our algorithm. Now , is not simply that, but the good dietalso induced several consistent changes in the gut bacteria of most participants. And it seemed thatthese changes were helpful, because bacteria that in other studieswere associated with good outcomes tended to increase after the good diet, and bacteria associated with diseasetended to decrease. And this result is of coursevery intriguing because it has indicated that in additionto normalizing blood glucose tiers during the intervention week, the good diet also inducedbeneficial effects that may persist even beyondthe involvement week.So what’s the take-home messagefrom all of this? Well, based on the glucoseresponses variability that we witnessed across 1,000 parties, our opinion is thatthere is no single best food for humans because we are all too different. It too meant that ifa certain diet hasn’t worked for you, then maybe it was the wrong diet for you. Your dietary failuresmay not be your fracture. Your diet may have neglected simply because it did not take informationabout you as an individual into account. So what can you dowith this information now? Well, right now, you can actually measure your personal glucose responsesto your favorite banquets abusing simple glucose devicesthat you can buy at your neighbourhood remedy store.And I guarantee that you’ll be surprised at which meat personally spikeyour glucose degrees and which do not. As a more complete solution, we are working hard to makeour algorithms available to everyone so that you’ll are now able, from your dwelling, to provide basicclinical information about yourself, send a sample of your microbiome, and in return receivepersonalized dietary advice.We are also starting longer-termdietary intervention studies in both pre-diabetics and diabeticsthat will go on for a full time. Because we believe that if the effectof normalizing blood glucose ranks that we were able to obtain in one weekcould persist for a longer time period, then we might be able to reverse, and even antidote, these conditions, which constitute oneof the worst plagues of our times. More broadly, I believe that we are enteringa new epoch in the study of nutrition, one in which we will move away from askingwhat is the best diet for humans, and instead, focuson the more suitable question of what is the best diet for me. Thank you very much.( Applause ).

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